# Library Coquelicot.Coquelicot

This library provides vernacular files containing a formalization of real
analysis for Coq. It is a conservative extension of the standard library Reals
with a focus on usability. It has been developed by Sylvie Boldo, Catherine
Lelay, and Guillaume Melquiond.
The goal of Coquelicot is to ease the writing of formulas and theorem statements
for real analysis. This is achieved by using total functions in place of
dependent types for limits, derivatives, integrals, power series, and so on.
To help with the proof process, the library comes with a comprehensive set
of theorems that cover not only these notions, but also some extensions such
as parametric integrals, two-dimensional differentiability, asymptotic
properties. It also offers some automations for performing differentiability
proofs. Since Coquelicot is a conservative extension of Coq's standard
library, we provide correspondence theorems between the two libraries.
In the following definitions, K will designate either a Ring or an AbsRing,
while U and V will designate a ModuleSpace, a NormedModule, or a
CompleteNormedModule.
Limits and neighborhoods are expressed in terms of filters, that is, predicates
of type (T → Prop) → Prop. Sets from a filter are stable by intersection and
extension. Filters are used to describe limit points and how they are approached.
The properties of a filter are described by the Filter record. If a filter
does not contain the empty set, it is also a PerfectFilter.
In a UniformSpace, ball x eps y states that y lies in a ball of center x and
radius eps. locally x is the filter generated by all the balls of center x. As
such, its single limit point is x. Thus locally x matches the traditional notion
of convergence toward x in a metric space. Note: locally x is also the set of
neighborhoods of x.
The supported filters are as follows:
Examples:
Open sets are described by the open predicate. It states that a set is open
if it is a neighborhood of any of its points (in terms of locally). Closed sets
are described by closed.
Limits and continuity are expressed with filters using predicate filterlim :
(S → T) → ((S → Prop) → Prop) → ((T → Prop) → Prop). Property
filterlim f K L means that the preimage of any set of L by f is a set of K.
In other words, function f, at the limit point described by filter K tends to
the limit point described by filter L.
Examples:
Lemma filterlim_locally gives the traditional epsilon-delta definition of
continuity. Compatibility with the continuity_pt predicate from the standard
library is provided by lemmas such as continuity_pt_filterlim.
The following predicates specialize filterlim to the usual cases of
real-valued sequences and functions:
The unicity of the limits is given by lemmas is_lim_seq_unique and
is_lim_unique. The compatibility with the arithmetic operators is given
by lemmas such as is_lim_seq_plus and is_lim_seq_plus'. They are
derived from the generic lemmas filterlim_plus and filterlim_comp_2.
Lemmas is_lim_seq_spec and is_lim_sprec gives the traditional epsilon-delta
definition of convergence. Compatibility with the Un_cv and limit1_in
predicates from the standard library is provided by lemmas is_lim_seq_Reals
and is_lim_Reals.
When only the convergence matters but not the actual value of the limit, the
following predicates can be used instead, depending on whether the value can
be infinite or not:
Finally, there are also some total functions that are guaranteed to return the
proper limits if the sequences or functions actually converge:
If they do not converge, the returned value is arbitrary and no interesting
results can be derived. These functions are related to the previous predicates
by lemmas Lim_seq_correct and Lim_correct.
As with predicates filterlim, is_lim_seq, and is_lim, compatibility with
the arithmetic operators is given by lemmas such as ex_lim_seq_mult and
Lim_inv.
Compatibility with predicates Un_cv and limit1_in from the standard library
is provided by lemmas is_lim_seq_Reals and is_lim_Reals.
The predicate of differentiability is filterdiff : (U → V) → ((U → Prop) →
Prop) → (U → V) → Prop. Property filterdiff f K l means that, at the
limit point described by filter K, the differential of function f is the linear
function l. Linearity is described by the predicate is_linear.
While filterdiff_ext states that two functions extensionally equal have the
same differential, filterdiff_ext_lin states that the differential can be
replaced by any linear function that is extensionally equal.
When the domain space of the function is an AbsRing rather than just a
NormedModule and the filter is locally, the following specialized predicates
can be used instead:
For real-valued functions, the following total function gives the value of the
derivative, if it exists: Derive : (R → R) → R → R. The specification of
this function is given by lemma Derive_correct. Compatibility of the
predicates with derivable_pt_lim from the standard library is given by
is_derive_Reals.
Tactic auto_derive can be used to automatically solve goals about is_derive,
ex_derive, derivable_pt_lim, and derivable_pt.
The main predicate is is_RInt : (R → V) → R → R → V → Prop. is_RInt f a
b l means that the Riemann sums of function f between a and b converge and
their limit is equal to l. This is a specialization of filterlim for a
function built using Riemann_sum and the Riemann_fine filter.
As before, there are a predicate and a total function related to it:
Compatibility with predicate Riemann_integrable from the standard library is
provided by lemmas ex_RInt_Reals_0 and ex_RInt_Reals_1.
The main predicates are is_series : (nat → V) → V → Prop and is_pseries :
(nat → V) → K → V → Prop.
The associated predicates and functions are as follows:
There is also a function CV_radius : (nat → R) → Rbar that returns the
possibly infinite convergence radius.
Compatibility with predicates infinite_sum and Pser from the standard
library is provided by lemmas is_series_Reals and is_pseries_Reals.

# Main types

- R: the set of real numbers defined by Coq's standard library.
- Rbar: R extended with signed infinities p_infty and m_infty. There is a coercion from R to Rbar.
- C: the set of complex numbers, defined as pairs of real numbers. There is a coercion from R to C.
- @matrix T m n: matrices with m rows and n columns of coefficients of type T.

# Main classes

- UniformSpace: a uniform space with a predicate ball defining an ecart.
- CompleteSpace: a UniformSpace that is also complete.
- AbelianGroup: a type with a commutative operator plus and a neutral element zero; elements are invertible (opp, minus).
- Ring: an AbelianGroup with a noncommutative operator mult that is distributive with respect to plus; one is the neutral element of mult.
- AbsRing: a Ring with an operator abs that is subdistributive with respect to plus and mult.
- ModuleSpace: an AbelianGroup with an operator scal that defines a left module over a Ring.
- NormedModule: a ModuleSpace that is also a UniformSpace; it provides an operator norm that defines the same topology as ball.
- CompleteNormedModule: a NormedModule that is also a CompleteSpace.

# Low-level concepts of topology

- locally x.
- locally' x is similar to locally x, except that x is missing from every set. Thus, while its limit point is x too, properties at point x do not matter.
- Rbar_locally x is defined for x in Rbar. It is locally x if x is finite, otherwise it is the set of half-bounded open intervals extending to either m_infty or p_infty, depending on which infinity x is. In the latter case, the limit described by the filter is plus or minus infinity.
- Rbar_locally' x is to Rbar_locally x what locally' x is to locally x.
- at_left x restricts the balls of locally x to points strictly less than x, thus properties of points on the right of x do not matter.
- at_right x is analogous to at_left x and is used to take limits on the right.
- filter_prod G H is a filter describing the neighborhoods of point (g,h) if G describes the neighborhoods of g while H describes the neighborhoods of h.
- eventually is a filter on natural numbers that converges to plus infinity.
- within dom F weakens a filter F by only considering points that satisfy dom.

- locally x P can be interpreted in several ways depending on the meaning of P. As a set, it means that P contains a ball centered at x, that is, P is a neighborhood of x. As a predicate, it means that P holds on a neighborhood of x.
- locally 2 (fun x ⇒ 0 < ln x) means that ln has positive values in a neighborhood of 2.
- at_left 1 (fun x ⇒ -1 < ln x < 0) means that ln has values between -1 and 0 in the left part of a neighborhood of 1.

# Limits and continuity

- filterlim f (locally x) (locally (f x)) means that f is continuous at point x. filterlim f (locally' x) (locally (f x)) is another way to state it, since x is necessarily in the preimage of f x and thus can be ignored.
- filterlim f (at_right x) (locally y) means that f t tends to y when t tends to x from the right.
- filterlim exp (Rbar_locally m_infty) (at_right 0) means that exp tends to 0 at minus infinity but only takes positive values there.
- ∀ x y : R, filterlim (fun z ⇒ fst z + snd z) (filter_prod (locally x) (locally y)) (locally (x + y)) states that Rplus is continuous.

- is_lim_seq : (nat → R) → Rbar → Prop, e.g. is_lim_seq (fun n ⇒ 1 + / INR n) 1.
- is_lim : (R → R) → Rbar → Rbar → Prop, e.g. is_lim exp p_infty p_infty.

- ex_lim_seq : (nat → R) → Prop.
- ex_lim : (R → R) → Rbar → Prop.
- ex_finite_lim_seq : (nat → R) → Prop.
- ex_finite_lim : (R → R) → Rbar → Prop.

- Lim_seq : (nat → R) → Rbar, e.g. Lim_seq (fun n ⇒ 1 + / INR n) is equal to 1.
- Lim : (R → R) → Rbar → Rbar.

# Derivability and differentiability

# Riemann integrals

# Series and power series

- ex_series : (nat → V) → Prop.
- ex_pseries : (nat → V) → K → Prop.
- Series : (nat → R) → R.
- PSeries : (nat → R) → R → R.

# Naming conventions

- Theorems about a given predicate start with its name, generally followed by the name of the object it is applied to, e.g. is_RInt_plus, or a property of the object, e.g. filterdiff_linear.
- Correspondence theorems with the standard library end with _Reals.
- Extensionality theorems end with _ext. If the equality only needs to be local, they end with _ext_loc instead.
- Uniqueness theorems end with _unique.
- Theorems about asymptotic properties at plus, resp. minus, infinity end with _p, resp. _m. if they are at infinite points.
- Theorems about constant functions, resp. identity, end with _const, resp. _id.

Require Export AutoDerive Compactness Complex Continuity Derive.

Require Export Derive_2d Equiv ElemFct Hierarchy Lim_seq.

Require Export Lub Markov PSeries Rbar Rcomplements.

Require Export RInt RInt_gen RInt_analysis Seq_fct Series SF_seq.

Copyright (C) 2011-2015 Catherine Lelay

Copyright (C) 2011-2015 Guillaume Melquiond